Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different types of wine. (Chardonnay, Merlot) European wines tend to be classified by region (e.g. Bordeaux, Rioja and Chianti), while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e.g. Pinot Noir and Merlot). However some non-European regions are also recognized and give their names to the wine produced. (e.g. Hunter Valley in Australia, Central Valley in Chile) There are fruit wines named after the types of fruit or berries. They are also called country wines. The color of wine is one of the most easily recognizable characteristics of wines. (red, white, rose) The colour of the wine mainly depends on the colour of the drupe of the grape variety. Red wine is made from red (or black) grapes, but its red colour is bestowed by a process called maceration, whereby the skin is left in contact with the juice during fermentation. White wine can be made from any colour of grape as the skin is separated from the juice during fermentation. Different types of wine should be served at the following temperature:

  • Sparking Wine: 48˚F (9˚ C)
  • White Wine: 53˚F (12˚ C)
  • Rose Wine: 51˚F (11˚ C)
  • Red Wine: 62˚F (17˚ C)

Subcategories of wine: table wine, dessert wine, fruit wine, rose wine, sparkling wine, cooking wine, fortified wine.


Table wine - An unfortified wine considered suitable to be served with a meal. In the European Union wine regulations, table wine (TW) is the lower of two overall quality categories, the higher of which is Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions (QWpsr).



Dessert wine - Dessert wines (or pudding wines BrE, and nicknamed stickies in Australia) are sweet wines typically served with dessert. Despite the name, they are often best appreciated alone, or with fruit or bakery sweets.




Fruit wine - Fruit wines are fermented alcoholic beverages made from a variety of ingredients (other than grapes) and having a variety of flavours.



Rosé wine - A rosé (From French: rosé, ‘pinkish') wine has some of the colour typical of a red wine, but only enough to turn it pink. The pink colour can range from a pale orange to a vivid near-purple, depending on the grapes and wine making techniques.



Sparkling wine - Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it making it fizzy. Sparkling wine is usually white or rosé but there are many examples of red sparkling wines. The classic example of a sparkling wine is Champagne, but this wine is exclusively produced in the Champagne region of France and many sparkling wines are produced in other countries and regions.


Cooking wine - Cooking wine or Cooking sherry refers to inexpensive grape wine or rice wine (in Chinese and other East Asian cuisine). It is intended for use as an ingredient in food rather than as a beverage.





Fortified wine - white fortified wines (fino and amontillado sherry) drunk before the meal, and the red fortified wines (port and madeira) drunk after it.





Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial 3.0 License